To a good Catholic the whole of this proceeding could not but appear most blasphemous; for at this festival the blacks mingled heathen notions to a most improper extent with their ideas of pilgrimage. This watercolour was painted by the German traveller Zacharias Wagner or Wagener —68 , who lived in Brazil from to , during the quarter-century —54 of Dutch rule over the north-eastern part of the colony. They were dressed according to the custom of the country. About half the songs repeat the same phrase with significant variation; the rest use contrasting phrases. However, even quite recently this dance was performed on a festive occasion in a house in Villa-Rica [now Ouro Preto] full of all sorts of women, by half-naked actors to loud clapping and applause. Half a cocoa nut, with a loop at its apex, was laid on his breast on the concave side; the bow was thrust into this loop, while the minstrel struck it with a switch, moving his fingers up and down the wire at the same time. The effect, at its best, is comparable only to the sound of a dulcimer string, since it is obtained by tapping lightly on the string with a small cane held between the index and middle fingers of the right hand.
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Nor is this a wholly new phenomenon: It has at its disposal an enormous number of different rhythmic patterns, and the differences between them are often extremely subtle. It consisted of a single string stretched on a bamboo, bent into an arc, or bow.
Immediately the other instruments entered and the dancing began. Manuel Canovas Fleury Blue Toile pastoral vintage From onwards, throughout the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth, African kings and queens were elected each year by the lay brotherhoods in Recife and Salvador. Titleyamp Marr Paisley Ground Natural fabric At first, such syncretism had the purpose of camouflaging African forms of worship and thus limiting persecution by Roman Catholic priests and by police of what was for long a major focus amaranya slave resistance and therefore harlequih forbidden faith in Brazil, 6 prohibited as mere witchcraft and rendering its adherents liable to excommunication, refusal of communion, arrest and imprisonment.
The noise, drumming, singing, etc. The dancers make periodical rotations gingas as they dance counter-clockwise, and we shall meet these spinning figures again in a Rio funeral procession see p. They were joined by an old hoary grey Negro carrying a heavy load upon his head, who, to my astonishment, joined in the dance for a whole quarter of an hour without putting down his burden.
At the utterance of a loud cry, a new dancer suddenly runs into the centre of the circle and all continue the movement uninterruptedly. So they pushed back the furniture, put on a tape of berimbau music, and aaranta capoeira with immense grace and skill.
There is an overlay, often heavy, of Christian iconography. It has several notable precursors. It is impossible to lay down a hard-and-fast dividing line between the two dances in Brazil.
There were specimens of every size, every form of the negro race; from the matron, with her gilt ornaments, her almost portly figure and proud gait, to the graceful, joyous, gazelle-like maiden, scarce yet developed; from the white-headed, ape-like, good-tempered old negro, to the roguish chattering boy. Essentially it represents the sea;38 the word often has that meaning when it appears in Brazilian folktales.
Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil
That of the vegetable and fruit venders is monotonous and singular; but so varied, that each kind of vegetable and fruit seems to have its own song. The slaves had used the improvised songs pontos to arrange meetings, arrange escapes and criticise their masters; after emancipation the songs became vehicles for social and political comment. This book relies heavily on accounts by European and American visitors to Brazil, and I have not hesitated to quote from these at length where they throw a light, however dim or fitful, on the music they heard and the dancing they saw.
Capoeira in the s 5. Highly stylised, it has no fewer than ten clearly defined types: These dancers blocked the way to the church in the name of St Gonzales of Amarante. Classic furniture, even that which needs some love, can make a sound investment for your home.
And this, as Crook makes clear, was a musical and political force to be reckoned with. In the most graceful and becoming attitudes, and amid incessant chattering, they were selling all kinds of reliques, amulets, torches, and eatables, partly from their baskets and partly from glass cases.
On closer inspection however the protagonists are also clearly dancing, as are two of the spectators, one of whom is also clapping the rhythm.
Nerina | Amaranta Fabric | Harlequin | Bemutatóterem |
Here it is important to stress both the key role the Catholic Church played in the entire acculturation process in Brazil, and the two-sided nature of that process.
In blocos afro helped persuade thousands of Bahians to turn their backs on the official celebrations of the centenary of abolition. All went on merrily in the hall: The latter then drew his sword and with warriorlike gestures pushed his way through the surrounding Negroes. Elsewhere in Brazil the verses are fully accompanied. The music is provided by a resonator xylophone and a notched scraper. The people who castagn part called their dance indifferently samba and batuque.